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Mandarin Grammar

Mandarin grammar can be challenging for anyone learning the language. In some ways it is simpler than the grammar of European languages because there are no subject / verb agreements to worry about. However, the word order of sentences is quite different from what most Westerners are used to. Regular practice will ingrain these sentence patterns and help you master Mandarin grammar.
  1. Essential Grammar (6)
  2. Numbers & Quantities (7)
  3. Particles (14)
  4. Time (8)
  5. Comparatives and Contrast (10)

Mandarin Conditional Sentences
Mandarin conditions are stated with the Mandarin Chinese words ruguo and yaoshi. The conditional statement is usually preceded with jiu, which is not translated into English.

Mandarin Activity Verbs
Mandarin activity verbs are used for actions and activities which have duration. They are distinct from stative verbs and achievement verbs.

How Many Hours?
Describe time amounts in Mandarin Chinese by using the noun forms of hours, minutes, and seconds.

Descriptive Pairs
Learn to use descriptive pairs of Mandarin Chinese adverbs and adjectives with this Mandarin Chinese grammar lesson.

Which Time?
When you need to clarify which time something happened, you can use the Mandarin Chinese sentence structure explained in this lesson.

Zuo Or Qi?
Zuo and qi are used in Mandarin Chinese to describe the means of conveyance. If you straddle something like a bicycle or a horse, use qi. If you sit on a seat while in a vehicle, use zuo.

Mandarn Place Words
There are three types of Mandarin place words and they are are used to describe a position or place.

Mandarin Movement Prepositions
Mandarin movement prepositions are used to show movement in time or space, similar to the English prepositions from and to.

Mandarin General Prepositions
Mandarin general prepositions are used to join nouns, pronouns and noun phrases within a sentence. Mandarin general prepositions are not used for time or space, but function like the English prepositions with, to and for.

Resutative Verb Endings
Mandarin Chinese resultative verb endings are used to show the result or possible result of an action. Resultative verb endings are a very common sentence structure used in Mandarin conversation and writing.

Repeated Adverbs
One way to form Mandarin adverbs is to repeat the adverb and follow it with the adverbial complement de.

Movement with Dao
The Mandarin Chinese movement verb dao can be used to express movement to or from a place. This lesson gives explanations and several examples on the use of dao with qu and lai to express movement in Mandarin Chinese.

Because ... Therefore
To give reasons in Mandarin Chinese, you can use a two-phrase sentence. The first phrase begins with yinwei - because. The second phrase begins with suoyi - therefore. Even though suoyi is not usually translated in English, it is required in Mandarin sentences.

Although - Even Though
If you want to make a contrasting sentence to say "even though" in Mandarin Chinese, the contrasting part of your sentence should begin with dan shi or ke shi, both of which mean "but".

Stative Verbs
Stative verbs are a class of Mandarin Chinese verbs that describe a relatively stable state. They are usually translated as adjectives, even though they function grammatically as verbs.

Showing Emphasis
Parts of a Mandarin Chinese sentence can be emphasized using the shi .. de construction. Emphasis is placed on the phrase or word following shi, and de is placed at the end of the sentence.

Reduplication
Reduplication is very common in Mandarin Chinese. Reduplication is to extend, intensify or soften the meaning of the words.

Xiang Wang Chao - Mandarin Chinese Prepositions
The three Mandarin Chinese prepositions meaning towards are xiang, wang, and chao. Xiang and chao are used to indicate movement towards a person or location, while wang is used for movement towards a location.

The three DE particles in Mandarin: 的, 地 and 得
The three DE particles in Mandarin: 的, 地 and 得: How to tell them apart and use them correctly

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